Linguistics are both applied sciences that attempt to describe the patterns and workings of language. The field of linguistics is more concerned with defining, describing and measuring linguistic diversity, whereas the field of lognostics attempts to infer meaning from language use itself. A person learning a new language needs to learn its vocabulary and grammar, but there is a lot more to it than that. A good language user should also be interested in its verbal components such as intonation, tone, registers and the like, in addition to the structural elements of sentence structure.
There are basically two measures of lognostics word meaning: one is lexical diversity, which measures how many different words there are for every possible meaning; the other is grammatical diversity, which measures how closely related the structures of a sentence are to those of other languages. Linguists trace these relationships through statistical methods like log-linear analysis and structural equation modeling. With the advent of computers, these methods are now more powerful and accurate than ever before. Here are some software programs that help you measure your level of linguistic knowledge: MTLD – Multilingual Desktop Language Testing, an interactive software tool for language understanding; Vocabulary Builder, a word database and grammar checking tool; Rosetta Stone Native, a comprehensive multilingual course for learning languages; Linguistic Instant Language System (LIMS), a database tool for collecting lexical, structural and verbal data; and the Cambridge English Dictionary (CAD).
lexical diversity is the measure of how many words there are for a particular term. This is usually expressed numerically, with the number of words per word being the number of words found in a dictionary. This is a good measure of modernity, since new words tend to gain widespread usage relatively quickly. In contrast, grammatical diversity measures how many words can be simultaneously defined or re-defined in a single context.
The second measure of linguistic complexity is the correspondence level. It is the comparison between the way in which a word is used in a sentence and how it is used in the target language, on the one hand. It is also related to lexicalization complexity, which measures how closely a word fits with its synonym or other similar words. The correspondence level is important because it gives a measure of how natural languages fit with one another. For example, a sentence could be classified as natural in which each word ends in exactly the right position, and each word is spelled exactly the same way (in grammar, at least).
Linguistic diversity is measured by the Linguistic Complexity Index (LCI). This index measures the extent to which a language user can make a distinction among the varieties of the same category. Each item in the index constitutes a concept and is divided into four categories: pronouns, verbs, adjectives and interpolation conditions, all of which are required in a sentence. For example, the verb “be” is indicated by a “s” in its root word and by an “er” and a “be” in its complement, while the adjective “big” is indicated by an “a” and a “be” and its complement.
One of the main purposes of this theory is to show how natural language features, in and of themselves, contribute to the richness and variety of a language. However, it should be noted that it is a rather simplification of reality. The fact is that human languages differ so greatly, that it is often irrelevant to consider the existence of human languages when assessing lexical richness. Nevertheless, it is useful for showing how differences in linguistic variation are manifested in lexical content. In particular, it helps explain how language users differ in their use of words, their tendencies to turn words into synonyms, and their tendency to utilize highly qualitative terms in a highly quantitative sense.